FAPESP, Rua Pio XI, 1500 - 05468-901 – SP – Brazil
Carlos Henrique de Brito Cruz graduated in Electrical Engineering from Instituto Tecnológico da Aeronáutica (ITA) in 1978, received a MSc degree in Physics in 1980 and a DSc degree in Physics in 1983, both from the Physics Institute “Gleb Wataghin” at the State University at Campinas (Unicamp). During 1981 Dr. Brito Cruz was a researcher at the Quantum Optics Laboratory, at the University of Rome. In 1982 Dr. Brito Cruz was appointed a professor at the Physics Institute at Unicamp. During 1986 and 1987 Dr. Brito Cruz worked as a resident visitor at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, NJ. In 1990 he was a visitor for three months at Bell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ. Dr. Brito Cruz has been the Vice-President (1995-1999) of the Brazilian Physics Society (SBF) and has served as Editor of the Revista Brasileira de Física Aplicada e Instrumentação (1992-1997). From 1991 to 1994 he served as a member of the International Advisory Committee of the Optical Society of America (OSA). From 1991 to 1994, and from 1998 to 2002, he was the Director of the Physics Institute at Unicamp. From 1994 to 1998 he was the Dean of Research at the State University at Campinas (Unicamp). From 1996 till 2002 he has served as the President of the Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of São Paulo, Fapesp. From April 2002 to April 2005 he was President of The State University of Campinas, Unicamp. Since April, 2005 Prof. Brito Cruz is the Scientific Director of Fapesp.
Bioenergy in Brazil
In Brazil, sugarcane ethanol supplied, in 2007, 16.3% of the energy for land transportation (excluding railroads) and 37.6% of the total energy supplied by liquid fuel for Otto cycle engines, a percentage that has reached 51% in 1988. Besides the lower production costs ethanol produced from sugarcane in Brazil has another important advantage: in Central-South Brazil only 1 unit of fossil energy is used for each 8-9 units of energy produced by ethanol from sugarcane. Carbon emissions reduction also benefits from sugarcane ethanol: for each cubic meter of ethanol used as fuel, there is a saving of 2.1-2,4t of CO2 not emitted to the atmosphere while, at the same time, no SO2 is emitted. In addition to fuel ethanol, sugarcane is burned to power the ethanol and sugar mills and also to sell electricity back to the grid. The total energy generated from sugarcane in Brazil amounted in 2007 to 15.9% of the energy produced in the country making sugarcane the second most important source of energy for Brazil, following oil and overcoming hydroelectricity. Sugarcane was introduced in Brazil in 1532. The "Brazilian model" of producing concomitantly sugar and ethanol, brought important technical benefits and made possible an outstanding increase in the competitiveness in the international market for sugar and ethanol. Today about 50% of the sucrose of sugarcane produced in the country is directed to the production of sugar while another half is used to produce Ethanol. Industrial and academic R&D has helped to increase the productivity of ethanol steadily over the past 33 years, at a rate of 3.2% per year. Productivity gains implied savings of planted area by a factor of 2.6. In 2007 the area planted with sugarcane for Ethanol production was 3.4 MHa, amounting to 1% of the total arable land available in Brazil. 63% of the Ethanol produced in Brazil comes from the State of São Paulo, where the productivity is the highest. Most of the recent expansion is happening in the center-west region of the country, in degraded pasture lands. The FAPESP Program for Research on Bioenergy, BIOEN, aims at articulating public and private R&D, using academic and industrial laboratories to advance and apply knowledge in fields related to ethanol production in Brazil. The BIOEN Program has a solid core for supporting academic exploratory research activities that will generate new knowledge and form scientists and professionals essential for advancing industry capacity in ethanol related technologies. On top of this, BIOEN includes partnerships with industry for cooperative R&D activities between industrial and academic laboratories, which are to be co-funded by FAPESP and industry. Federal agencies, such as CNPq, will also participate.